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Articles

  1. Hen Enwau Moelfre
  2. Celtic Origins
  3. Celtic Shores (Celtic Steel, #2) by Delaney Rhodes
  4. Blood of the Irish: What DNA Tells Us About the Ancestry of People in Ireland

Parkin must oversee the operations and coordinate efforts between the O'Malleys and the MacCahans. Will Parkin be able to withstand the temptation to trespass the legendary shore? Or will he be invited? Kyra O'Connell has resided in O'Malley territory all of her life. Fear of revolt, which could be mitigated for the armateur by insurance cover, was rife among captains and crew. By the early s Antoine Walsh had shifted from slave-ship captain to slave-merchant. He never actually experienced revolt himself but his relatives and employees did.

At this point Barnaby Shiell, with five armed sailors, fired on the Africans. In the ensuing slaughter two crew and 40 slaves were killed. The result in commercial terms was the destruction of one-sixth of the cargo. Undeterred by this set-back, Captain J. Shaughnessy determinedly pursued his professional objectives, remaining at Whydah until he was finally able to sail with Africans for St Domingue and Martinique.

After the Jacobite defeat, Walsh turned back to slaving, and immediately one of his ships became the scene of a slave revolt. As the ship got ready to sail, six women, one with a child at the breast, threw themselves overboard and drowned. A month later, off the island of San Thome, the remaining slaves rose and killed the captain and two sailors. The crew threatened to resort to firearms but the Africans took no notice and the result was 36 dead. By the eighteenth century Africans were accustomed to guns.

The desire to possess them was one of the factors fuelling the trade and bringing about political change as states grew stronger or weaker according to their access to firepower. But those Africans delivered to the ships as slaves were devoid of weapons. For an experienced slave-trader it was a familiar professional set-back. As far as Walsh was concerned, the real danger to his ambitions had surfaced within Nantes itself.

Walsh had risen as an independent himself but now wanted to prevent the rise of other independents. His financial innovations in France were to be underpinned by novel arrangements in Africa. The company would have three large ships stocked with trade goods permanently stationed off the Angolan coast.

Five smaller ships would make an annual Atlantic crossing to St Domingue, where they would deliver their cargo into a fortified slave-camp. After launching 40 voyages, his career as an armateur had come to an end.

Hen Enwau Moelfre

Over the years Antoine Walsh had purchased over 12, Africans for export across the Atlantic, though not all of them had reached the Americas. No other family from the Irish community in Nantes could claim anything approaching such a score, although two others, the Rirdans and the Roches, emerged as significant armateurs. Cork, sent out eleven expeditions during the years —49, purchasing just over 3, slaves. Between and the Roche family their roots in Limerick, where they possessed marriage connections with Arthurs and Suttons organised a similar number.

This opened up the slave trade to individual British merchants, while banning Irish ports from launching direct voyages to Africa.

Celtic Origins

Their success over several generations was marked by their move into Queen Square, where they lived in an elegant new building looking out on a handsome statue of William III. By the s they had disappeared, to be replaced by John Coghlan and James Connor. But the first four had all been born in that area; only Tuohy had arrived as a young man from Tralee.


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From the s onwards he and his brother-in-law, Philip Nagle, captained ships to Africa. Though he gave up sailing to Africa himself after , he continued to despatch ships for slaves. The men mentioned above were professional survivors and successes. In France and Britain many of those emerging as slave-merchants had begun life as captains in the trade. At least five captains died in Africa for every one who achieved the status of merchant. It began its climb to notoriety in , when the abolitionists produced a diagram of the vessel showing shackled slaves, arranged with mathematical precision, head to toe, layer upon layer, not an inch of space unused.

Confronted by an enemy privateer near Barbados, he armed 50 of his cargo and successfully repelled the attack. The number of Scots and Manx captaining Liverpool slave-ships exceeded those from Ireland. But among ordinary sailors the position was reversed and the Irish formed the most numerous non-English group—more than 12 per cent as against the Scots with 9.

Already an evangelical, but still inhabiting a pre-anti-slavery world, he held services on board for the crew, never thinking of extending his religious ministrations to the Africans he was loading and shackling down below. Some of the Irish names presented Newton with greater difficulty. This may well have been the belief as regards any one who had at his command the dreaded potency of magic. Lastly, it may be said that the fairies being supposed deathless, there would be no reason why they should hurry; and even in case the delay meant a century or two, that makes no perceptible approach to the extravagant scale of time common enough in our fairy tales, when, for instance, they make a man who has whiled ages away in fairyland, deem it only so many minutes Whatever the causes may have been which gave our stories their form in regard of the delay in the fairy revenge, it is clear that Welsh folklore could not allow this delay to extend beyond the sixth generation with its cousinship of nine ancestries, if, as I gather, it counted kinship no further.

Celtic Shores (Celtic Steel, #2) by Delaney Rhodes

Had one projected it on the seventh or the eighth generation, both of which are contemplated in the Laws, it would not be folklore. It would more likely be the lore of the landed gentry and of the powerful families whose pedigrees and ramifications of kinship were minutely known to the professional men on whom it was incumbent to keep themselves, and those on whom they depended, well informed in such matters.

It remains for me to consider the non-ethical motive of the other stories, such as those which ascribe negligence and the consequent inundation to the woman who has the charge of the door or lid of the threatening well. Her negligence is not the cause of the catastrophe, but it leaves the way open for it. What then can have been regarded the cause? One may gather something to the point from the Irish story where the divinity of the well is offended because a woman has gazed into its depths, and here probably, as already suggested p.

Besides the Irish legends already mentioned pp. For the present purpose the details given by The Four Masters are sufficient, and I have hurriedly counted their instances as follows:—. This makes an aggregate of thirty-five lakes and forty-six rivers, that is to say a total of eighty-one eruptions. But I ought, perhaps, to explain that under the head of lakes I have included not only separate pieces of water, but also six inlets of the sea, such as Strangford Lough and the like. Still more to the point is it [ ] to mention that of the lakes two are said to have burst forth at the digging of graves.

Thus, A. Similarly, A.

Blood of the Irish: What DNA Tells Us About the Ancestry of People in Ireland

Easy to say. Garman Glas, son of Dega, was buried there, and when his grave was dug then the lake burst throughout the land. Whence Loch Garman. The meaning of all this seems to be that cutting the green sward or disturbing the earth beneath was believed in certain cases to give offence to some underground divinity or other connected with the world of waters.

That divinity avenged the annoyance or offence given him by causing water to burst forth and form a lake forthwith. The nearness of such divinities to the surface seems not a little remarkable, [ ] and it is shown not only in the folklore which has been preserved for us by The Four Masters , but also by the usual kind of story about a neglected well door.

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These remarks suggest the question whether it was not one of the notions which determined surface burials, that is, burials in which no cutting of the ground took place, the cists or chambers and the bodies placed in them being covered over by the heaping on of earth or stones brought from a more or less convenient distance.

It might perhaps be said that all this only implied individuals of a character to desecrate the ground and call forth the displeasure of the divinities concerned; and for that suggestion folklore parallels, it is true, could be adduced. But it is hardly adequate: the facts seem to indicate a more general objection on the part of the powers in point; and they remind one rather of the clause said to be inserted in mining leases in China with the object, if one may trust the newspapers, of preventing shafts from being sunk below a certain depth, for fear of offending the susceptibilities of the demons or dragons ruling underground.

It is interesting to note the fact, that Celtic folklore connects the underground divinities intimately with water; for one may briefly say that they have access wherever water can take them. Pughe says, p. Thus the power of the water spirit is represented as equal to producing excessive wet weather and destructive floods. He is in all probability not to be dissociated from the afanc in the Conwy story which has already been given pp. Some such a local legend has been generalized into a sort of universal flood story in the late Triad, iii. According to Mr. To be more exact the task may be here considered as done by Arthur superseding Hu: see p.

That, however, is of no consequence here, and I return to the afanc: the Fan Fach legend told to Mr. Reynolds [ ] makes the lake ruler huge and hairy, hideous and rough-spoken, but he expresses himself in human speech, in fact in two lines of doggerel: see p. Then as to the Conwy afanc, he is very heavy, it is true, but he also speaks the language of the country.


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  • He is lured, be it noticed, out of his home in the lake by the attractions of a young woman, who lets him rest his head in her lap and fall asleep. When he wakes to find himself in chains he takes a cruel revenge on her. But with infinite toil and labour he is dragged beyond the Conwy watershed into one of the highest tarns on Snowdon; for there is here no question of killing him, but only of removing him where he cannot harm the people of the Conwy Valley. However, the description which the Peredur story gives 18 of him is interesting: he lives in a cave at the door of which is a stone pillar: he sees everybody that comes without anybody seeing him; and from behind the pillar he kills all comers with a poisoned spear.